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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.

Bell Labs is the source of many significant contributions, of course, in the area of telephony, but also in memory devices, imaging devices, system organization, computers and software technology, as well as acoustics, optics, switching, transmission, wireless and data communication. New principles, new materials, new devices, and new systems from Bell Telephone Laboratories resulted in new industries, hundreds of new products, and thousands of new jobs. The invention of the transistor in 1947, and subsequent advances in related solid-state device and circuit technology formed the basis of a multibillion dollar global industry and ultimately enabled the digital world. Shannon's seminal paper titled >"A Mathematical Theory of Communication," published over 60 years ago, gave birth to Information Theory and has stood as the guiding foundation for communications scientists and engineers in their quest for faster, more efficient, and more robust communications systems ever since. The charge-coupled device (CCD), a technology that transforms patterns of light into useful digital information, is the basis for many forms of modern digital imaging. It has launched entirely new industries and markets and is widely used in devices as diverse as digital cameras, video cameras, and bar code readers as well as in security monitoring, medical endoscopy, modern astronomy and video conferencing. Optical technology and systems, from earliest advances in lasers to low-loss fiber, opto-electronic waveguide devices, and high capacity WDM transmission systems have enabled worldwide connectivity to build a truly global community. Cellular telephone service, the concept that multiple lower-power transmitters could be spread throughout a region employing automatic call handoff and frequency reuse changed the face of communications. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) smart antenna technology in concert with LTE, based on OFDM technology, will define next generation wireless, delivering wider coverage and higher throughput.

"Technological innovation" is more than just invention. It is a process, often long and costly, of transforming new scientific knowledge into feasible technology, introducing it to use, and making its benefits available to the public. âTechnical integrationâ is intended to emphasize the more subtle flow of an intangibleâengineering information and understanding. Not only has Bell Labs innovated, but it also showed the world technical integration of the innovations. The Bell System Technical Journal was a key enabler for this achievement.

With this posting of the Bell System Technical Journal from volume 1 issue 1 in July 1922 to the final issue published in December 1983, we are pleased to be able to open the vault of this knowledge to our global technical colleagues.

Rod Alferness
Chief Scientist, Bell Labs

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Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 2. April 1950 pp 189-250. Traveling-Wave Tubes (Second Installment). (Pierce, J.R.)
Topics: field, circuit, phase, resonators, circuits, stored, frequency, velocity, electron, transverse,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 6 November 1959 pp 1551-1580. Some Design Considerations for High-Frequency Transistor Amplifiers (Thomas, D.E.)
Topics: transistor, amplifier, feedback, gain, impedance, emitter, circuit, common, input, amplifiers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 56: 5. May-June 1977 pp 703-718. Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices. (Marcuse, D.)
Topics: fiber, gaussian, fibers, field, transmission, parameter, splices, splice, width, mode, bell system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 487-509. Methods of Electromagnetic Field Analysis. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: equations, transmission, electromagnetic, network, impedance, magnetic, field, modes, wave,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 2. April 1937 pp 144-164. Crosstalk Between Coaxial Transmission Lines. (Schelkunoff, S.A.; Odarenko, T.M.)
Topics: crosstalk, coaxial, impedance, transmission, outer, conductors, mutual, circuit, expression,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 293-326. Route Selection and Cable Laying for the Transatlantic Cable System (Jack, J.S.; Leech, Capt. W.H.; Lewis, H.A.)
Topics: cable, repeater, laying, cables, repeaters, route, submarine, clarenville, system, miles, cable...
Bell System Technical Journal, 11: 3. July 1932 pp 411-450. Transmission Lines for Short-Wave Radio Systems. (Sterba, E.J.; Feldman, C.B.)
Topics: lines, impedance, transmission, conductor, radio, attenuation, radiated, concentric,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 3. May 1959 pp 611-656. Probability of Error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: probability, sin, code, error, bound, exp, gaussian, asymptotic, bounds, cone, solid angle, code...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 2. March, 1956 pp 333-347. Electrolytic Shaping of Germanium and Silicon. (Uhlir, A., Jr.)
Topics: electrolytic, tlie, electrolyte, barrier, germanium, etch, current, etching, etch pits, tho
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 2021-2048. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Portability of C Programs and the UNIX System. (Johnson, S.C.; Ritchie, D.M.)
Topics: compiler, programs, portability, interdata, program, operating, system, unix, portable, code, unix...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 947-962. Synthesis of Driving-Point Impedances with Active RC Networks (Sandberg, I.W.)
Topics: impedance, synthesis, impedances, converter, active, network, poles, biquadratic, realization,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 4. July 1962 pp 1347-1369. Generalized Confocal Resonator Theory. (Boyd, G.D.; Kogelnik, H.)
Topics: reflector, resonator, reflectors, modes, curvature, diffraction, mode, confocal, resonators,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 26: 2. April 1947 pp 219-317. Radar Antennas. (Friis, H.T.; Lewis, W.D.)
Topics: antenna, radar, antennas, wave, reflector, parabolic, beam, phase, array, feed, fire control,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 4. April 1965 pp 547-588. Automatic Equalization for Digital Communication. (Lucky, R.W.)
Topics: distortion, equalizer, equalization, channel, taps, response, transversal, tap, delay, filter, tap...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 656-683. Developments in Short-Wave Directive Antennas. (Bruce, E.)
Topics: antenna, antennas, directive, horizontal, wire, vertical, tilt, signal, directivity, wave, vertical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 1. January 1961 pp 1-41. Proving Theorems by Pattern Recognition - II. (Wang, Hao)
Topics: row, formula, rows, cyclic, predicate, theorems, formulae, atomic, procedure, finite, finite set,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 12: 4. October 1933 pp 377-430. Loudness, Its Definition, Measurement and Calculation. (Fletcher, Harvey; Munson, W.A.)
Topics: loudness, tone, intensity, frequency, values, reference, tones, level, component, levels, intensity...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 5. September 1957 pp 1129-1207. Dynamics and Kinematics of the Laying and Recovery of Submarine Cable. (Zajac, E.E.)
Topics: cable, ship, sin, velocity, transverse, tangential, laying, tension, stationary, drag, cable...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 1. January 1948 pp 109-157. Statistical Properties of a Sine Wave Plus Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, integral, sine, wave, equation, exp, spectrum, probability, properties, density, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 10. December 1978 pp 3531-3537. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, data, transaction, tau, systems, eta, beta, kappa, phi, design, executive director, digital...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 1 January 1956 pp 203-234. A Class of Binary Signaling Alphabets (Slepian, David)
Topics: alphabet, alphabets, elements, parity, binary, weight, element, coset, sequence, signaling, parity...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 821-877. The TJ Radio Relay System (Gammie, J.; Hathaway, S.D.)
Topics: system, radio, frequency, relay, receiver, antenna, signal, transmitter, output, waveguide, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 8. October 1965 pp 1675-1698. Design Theory of Balanced Transistor Amplifiers. (Kurokawa, K.)
Topics: amplifier, balanced, directional, amplifiers, couplers, component, coupling, transistor, ports,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 5. May-June 1972 pp 955-1126. Where on the Moon? An Apollo Systems Engineering Problem. (Cappellari, J.O. Jr.)
Topics: lunar, apollo, landing, descent, trajectory, mission, launch, site, surface, spacecraft, launch...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 6. November 1964 pp 3009-3057. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions, Fourier Analysis and Uncertainty - IV: Extensions to Many Dimensions; Generalized Prolate Spheroidal Functions. (Slepian, David)
Topics: spheroidal, prolate, functions, wave, eigenfunctions, solution, asymptotic, equation, fourier,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 1. January 1939 pp 76-118. Crossbar Dial Telephone Switching System. (Scudder, F.J.; Reynolds, J.N.)
Topics: crossbar, subscriber, sender, terminating, switch, incoming, marker, link, trunk, switches,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 45: 10. December 1966 pp 1775-1796. Synthesis of Band-Limited Orthogonal Signals for Multichannel Data Transmission. (Chang, Robert W.)
Topics: transmitting, transmission, signals, data, phase, characteristics, filters, orthogonal, amplitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 5: 1. January 1926 pp 50-95. Electric Circuit Theory and the Operational Calculus Chapter VI, Propagation of Current and Voltage Along the Non-Inductive Cable. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: voltage, cable, current, propagation, equation, operational, waves, wave, values, formula, multiply...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 1. January 1943 pp 1-72. The Mathematics of Physical Properties of Crystals. (Bond, Walter L.)
Topics: matrix, sin, strain, symmetry, axis, vector, crystal, crystals, electric, axes, entirely analogous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 4. October 1939 pp 724-741. Dial Clutch of the Spring Type. (Wiebusch, C.F.)
Topics: spring, torque, arbor, stress, equation, wire, stresses, clutch, fibers, values, stress...
Bell System Technical Journal, 54: 1. January 1975 pp 103-142. Space-Diversity Engineering. (Vigants, A.)
Topics: antenna, fading, diversity, fade, frequency, threshold, multipath, antennas, ghz, switching,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 1 January 1950 pp 1-59. Traveling-Wave Tubes (Pierce, J. R.)
Topics: helix, wave, velocity, electron, field, impedance, circuit, helically, conducting, phase, helically...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 4. October 1931 pp 616-627. Audible Frequency Ranges of Music, Speech and Noise. (Snow, W.B.)
Topics: frequency, audible, frequencies, cycles, observers, bass, range, ranges, tests, noises, audible...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 1. January 1930 pp 150-162. Notes on the Heaviside Operational Calculus. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: heaviside, operational, equation, integral, fourier, singularities, calculus, solution, divergent,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 1 January 1950 pp 94-104. Realization of a Constant Phase Difference (Darlington, Sidney)
Topics: phase, tan, constant, corresponding, roots, networks, elliptic, modulus, function, approximation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 2. March, 1958 pp 485-569. The Measurement of Power Spectra from the Point of View of Communications Engineering - Part II. (Blackman, R.B.; Tukey, J.W.)
Topics: power, spectral, spectra, frequency, density, function, ave, spectrum, estimates, corresponding,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 1. January 1948 pp 96-108. A Note on Parallel-Tuned Transformer Design. (Rideout, V.C.)
Topics: transformer, matched, design, transmission, bandwidth, ratio, formulas, mismatched, frequency,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 25: 3. July 1946 pp 408-434. High Q Resonant Cavities for Microwave Testing. (Wilson, I.G.; Schramm, C.W.; Kinzer, J.P.)
Topics: cavity, mode, modes, frequency, cavities, kmc, radar, resonant, echo, coupling, operating area, kmc...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 995-1043. Conversion of Maxwell's Equations into Generalized Telegraphist's Equations. (Schelkunoff, S.A.)
Topics: equations, modes, transmission, generalized, conducting, series, field, mode, transverse, waves,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2 April 1948 pp 183-246. Microwave Repeater Research (Friis, H.T.)
Topics: repeater, amplifier, frequency, antenna, microwave, signal, transmission, output, fading,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 56: 3. March 1977 pp 355-366. Photon Tube - An Optical-Fiber Time-Domain Reflectometer. (Personick, S.D.)
Topics: fiber, optical, echo, gating, scattering, pulse, scan, rayleigh, photomultiplier, trace, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 6. July-August 1969 pp 1937-1955. Some Basic Characteristics of Broadband Negative Resistance Oscillator Circuits. (Kurokawa, K.)
Topics: sin, oscillators, equations, frequency, locking, oscillation, equation, oscillator, device,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 4. October 1939 pp 645-723. The Quantum Physics of Solids, I. The Energies of Electrons in Crystals. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: energy, electrons, quantum, atoms, atom, lattice, band, electron, magnetic, theory, wave functions,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 5: 2. April 1926 pp 336-384. Electric Circuit Theory and the Operational Calculus Chapter IX, The Finite Line with Terminal Impedances. (Carson, John R.)
Topics: circuit, solution, integral, equation, series, fourier, impedance, current, variable, indicial,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 3. March 1965 pp 455-494. Imaging of Optical Modes -- Resonators with Internal Lenses. (Kogelnik, Herwig)
Topics: beam, lens, optical, focal, modes, resonators, parameters, resonator, diffraction, plane, principal...
Bell System Technical Journal, 5: 4. October 1926 pp 593-603. Quality Control Charts. (Shewhart, W.A.)
Topics: product, observed, sample, quality, data, probability, control, values, assignable, uniform,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 1. January 1941 pp 1-61. Single Sampling and Double Inspection Tables. (Dodge, H.F.; Romig, H.G.)
Topics: ooo, sampling, inspection, defective, values, sss, average, aoql, sample, tolerance, single...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 1. January 1958 pp 185-282. The Measurement of Power Spectra from the Point of View of Communications Engineering - Part I. (Blackman, R.B.; Tukey, J.W.)
Topics: frequency, spectrum, function, spectra, measurement, fourier, spectral, power, values, estimates,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 45: 2. February 1966 pp 255-286. Techniques for Adaptive Equalization of Digital Communication Systems. (Lucky, R.W.)
Topics: equalizer, error, equalization, system, data, tap, transmission, adaptive, symbols, probability,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 1. January 1961 pp 233-254. Noncylindrical Helix Waveguide. (Unger, H.G.)
Topics: waveguide, helix, circular, loss, wave, deformation, mode, electric, perturbation, metallic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 1 January 1955 pp 5-103. Behavior and Applications of Ferrites in the Microwave Region (Fox, A.G.; Miller, S.E.; Weiss, M.T.)
Topics: ferrite, phase, magnetic, rotation, polarized, waveguide, field, dielectric, loss, faraday, faraday...
Bell System Technical Journal, 15: 1. January 1936 pp 63-91. The Present Status of Ferromagnetic Theory. (Bozorth, R.M.)
Topics: magnetic, magnetization, direction, crystal, iron, permeability, spins, ferromagnetic, domains,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1931-1946. UNIX Time-Sharing System: UNIX Implementation. (Thompson, K.)
Topics: process, file, system, user, processes, data, device, unix, block, table, system technical, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 53: 10. December 1974 pp 1897-1899. L5 Coaxial-Carrier Transmission System, Foreword.
Topics: system, coaxial, transmission, bell, systems, capacity, repeater, cable, increased, foreword, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 4. July 1959 pp 985-999. Representation of Switching Circuits by Binary-Decision Programs. (Lee, C.Y.)
Topics: switching, program, variables, boolean, binary, computation, circuit, programs, theorem, lemma,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 4. October 1923 pp 31-100. Thermionic Vacuum Tubes and Their Applications. (King, Robert W.)
Topics: grid, circuit, tube, voltage, tubes, vacuum, thermionic, frequency, filament, amplifier, high...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 3. May 1961 pp 669. A Block Diagram Compiler. (Kelly, John L. Jr.; Lochbaum, Carol; Vyssotsky, V.A.)
Topics: blodi, output, program, delay, input, box, compiler, signal, loop, circuit, uncompiled boxes,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 2. March, 1956 pp 295-332. Transistor Circuits for Analog and Digital Systems. (Blecher, Franklin H.)
Topics: input, voltage, circuit, loop, amplifier, transistor, tlie, output, input voltage, diode, active...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 973-994. The Construction of Missile Guidance Codes Resistant to Random Interference (Eckler, A.R.)
Topics: codes, false, pulses, command, code, mod, security, missile, commands, pulse, false pulses,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 5. May-June 1968 pp 623-650. Design of Monopulse Antenna Difference Patterns with Low Sidelobes. (Bayliss, E.T.)
Topics: sidelobe, pattern, aperture, difference, sidelobes, antenna, asymptotic, function, angle,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 3. July 1941 pp 255-292. Industrial Mathematics. (Fry, Thornton C.)
Topics: mathematical, mathematics, industrial, mathematician, bell, journal, theory, mathematicians,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 4. October 1928 pp 639-707. The Practical Application of the Fourier Integral. (Campbell, George A.)
Topics: coefficient, exp, fourier, integral, pairs, cisoidal, unit, pair, erfc, impulse, bell system, unit...
Bell System Technical Journal, 26: 4. October 1947 pp 693-817. The Radar Receiver. (Morrison, L.W., Jr.)
Topics: radar, circuit, receiver, frequency, employed, tube, signal, amplifier, deflection, output, band...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 6. November 1955 pp 1265-1285. Distortion in Feedback Amplifiers. (Ketchledge, R.W.)
Topics: feedback, frequency, distortion, amplifiers, series, products, fundamentals, order, expansion, cos,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 25: 4. October 1946 pp 563-602. Spark Gap Switches for Radar. (Goucher, F.S.; Haynes, J.R.; Depp, W.A.; Ryder, E.J.)
Topics: voltage, gap, gaps, spark, operating, tubes, cathode, pulse, switch, peak, bell system, peak...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 5. September 1960 pp 1321-1350. An Alternative Approach to the Realization of Network Transfer Functions: The N-Path Filter. (Franks, L.E.; Sandberg, I.W.)
Topics: transfer, network, function, functions, frequency, periodic, networks, filter, component,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 1. January 1960 pp 169-204. Germanium and Silicon Liquidus Curves. (Thurmond, C.D.; Kowalchik, M.)
Topics: liquidus, germanium, silicon, measurements, curve, liquid, curves, solubility, temperature,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 22: 2. July 1943 pp 178-223. Quartz Crystal Applications. (Mason, W.P.)
Topics: crystal, crystals, quartz, temperature, elastic, piezoelectric, frequency, constants, axis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 55: 9. November 1976 pp 1389-1410. Multiple Tone Parameter Estimation From Discrete-Time Observations. (Rife, D.C.; Boorstyn, R.R.)
Topics: estimation, frequency, bounds, tones, window, theorem, complex, tone, parameter, bias, window...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 2. April 1934 pp 163-194. The Carbon Microphone: An Account of Some Researches Bearing on Its Action. (Goucher, F.S.)
Topics: contact, carbon, hills, resistance, journal, bell, contacts, microphone, behavior, microphonic,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 31: 6. November 1952 pp 1086-1120. Common Control Telephone Switching Systems. (Myers, Oscar)
Topics: systems, common, dial, trunks, system, switching, tandem, control, digits, office, switching...
Bell System Technical Journal, 10: 1. January 1931 pp 46-62. Condenser and Carbon Microphones - Their Construction and Use. (Jones, W.C.)
Topics: diaphragm, condenser, microphone, sound, damping, frequency, calibration, carbon, pressure,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 17: 4. October 1938 pp 574-591. The Bridge Stabilized Oscillator. (Meacham, L.A.)
Topics: frequency, oscillator, bridge, circuit, phase, variations, stabilized, amplifier, filament,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 4. July 1958 pp 899-912. Circular Waveguide Taper of Improved Design. (Unger, Hans-Georg)
Topics: taper, waveguide, mode, cylindrical, cone, transition, circular, waves, equations, modes, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 14: 1. January 1935 pp 8-43. A Survey of Magnetic Materials in Relation to Structure. (Ellis, W.C.; Schumacher, Earle E.)
Topics: magnetic, alloys, magnet, alloy, cent, nickel, materials, iron, properties, permeability, soft...